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Rage Ghost of War Special Edition

Rage Ghost of War Special Edition

$59.99 $69.99

Flavor

RELOADED.

  • Maximum Strength Pre-Workout
  • Boost Strength & Size Gains
  • Improve Energy & Focus
  • Flood Muscles with Nutrients
  • Train Harder, Longer
  • 5 Premium Ingredients

 

Description

What’s the primary ingredient for everything you’ve ever wanted? Change. Perfection is an evolution, and just like the original Rage, Ghost of War is here to turn your workout intensity up past 10.

Ghost of War features 3 complexes; they’re the key to training session success – Pump, Cellular Energy, & Focus. Advancements in ingredient science have brought us to new heights!

  • S7™ is a cutting-edge ingredient capable of increasing nitric oxide levels 230%!
  • GlycerSize™ pours fluid and nutrients into muscle cells for downright crazy pumps.
  • BetaPOWER® enhances exercise tolerance, driving more and more gains.
  • Added Theobromine provides greater cognitive clarity for a stronger mind-muscle connection.

Keep what works, and add what works better. Rage Ghost of War goes for the win, just like you.

 

Supplement Facts

 pre workout

Ingredient Profile

NITRIC OXIDE RECYCLING COMPLEX

Citrulline Malate

Citrulline Malate is a non-essential amino acid that eventually converts to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator that can help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to both organs and muscles.

  • Studies have shown that Citrulline Malate enhances exercise tolerance by reducing levels of blood ammonia and lactate that are typically elevated during strenuous exercise.
  • This ingredient will allow you to train with less rest in between sets and elevate your endurance capacity.
  • A recent research study found individuals who consumed citrulline malate for 15 days were able to increase ATP production during exercise by 34% and improve phospho-creatine resynthesis after exercise by 20%.

Taurine

Taurine, has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that Taurine is a great ingredient to have in your wheelhouse

  • Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise-induced DNA damage.

L-Ornithine HCl

Ornithine, when bound by salt at the molecular level to Orotate (orotic acid), is much more bio-available than in its HCL or free form.

  • Ornithine Works in synergy with Arginine in the metabolism of waste caused by intense exercise.
  • By increasing Nitric Oxide production and decreasing waste – you are able to train longer and support greater results
  • A 2008 study conducted by Sugino et al. discovered supplementation with ornithine was able to reduce perceptions of fatigue to 52% of placebo on a prolonged endurance test and was able to reduce ammonia accrual during exercise.

Beta Vulgaris Root Extract

Beta Vulgaris (beets) is extremely rich in nitrates and other ergogenic compounds. These components have been systematically proven to improve workout performance.

  • Nitrates in beets have been shown to improve blood flow and exercise efficiency.
  • Betalains in beets improve oxygen carrying capacity and endurance.
  • Supplementing with beet juice has been shown to reduce the energy (ATP) cost of every muscle contraction, leading to improved work load and sustained performance.

S7™

Combines the power of 7 high N.O. producing plants to drive nitric oxide production.

  • The first ever study showed a 230% increase in Nitric Oxide following supplementation.
  • Nitric Oxide dilates blood vessels to deliver more blood and nutrients to working muscles.
  • Antioxidants protect against cellular stress

CELLULAR ENERGY COMPLEX

3-Aminopropanoic Acid

3-Aminopropanoic acid  is a precursor to carnosine that is better for improving muscle carnosine concentrations than carnosine supplementation itself. Carnosine acts as an intracellular buffer, neutralizing acids and bases.

  • Improves high-intensity anaerobic performance, such as high-rep sets and repeated sprints (HIIT).
  • A study by Van Thienen et al. (2010) found 3-aminopropanoic acid supplementation to improve power output by 11.5%
  • Long term supplementation with 3-aminopropanoic acid has been observed to increase lean mass gain while decreasing fat mass.

Beta-POWER® Betaine

Betaine helps to support methylation reactions in the body which include but are not limited to liver detoxification and neurotransmitter production.

  • It has been shown to increase energy levels as well as muscle strength and recovery.
  • Betaine's effects on the neurotransmitters can help to increase the effectiveness of the “mind-muscle” connection.
  • Betaine works synergistically with Choline (another ingredient found in Ghost of War).
  • A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily increased bench press power by 20%.

GlycerSize™

Glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting sugar alcohol. When consumed glycerol is rapidly absorbed primarily in the small intestine, distributed equally among all fluid compartments, and promotes hyperhydration by inducing an osmotic gradient.

This brings potential benefits for endurance and stamina events, including adaptation to environmental heat/humidity stress, along with promoting blood flow associated with resistance training.

Glycerol has also been shown to help athletes store extra water, delaying the need for hydration. This suggests improved efficiency in exercise, thermoregulation and decreased physiological stress.

In addition, glycerol enhances plasma and intramuscular volume expansion, producing a more engorged muscular appearance.

Creatine MagnaPower®

By combining magnesium to the creatine mixture in this compound – it allows (in a similar fashion to COP) the creatine to be absorbed and utilized for anabolic processes and prevents conversion to creatinine through the process of cyclization.

  • Creatine MagnaPower pulls together both creatine and magnesium for the most effective ATP synthesis.
  • The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.

MENTAL STIMULATION AND FOCUS COMPLEX

L-Tyrosine

L-Tyrosine helps to activate metabolic pathways that produce the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine - which are typically produced during moments of stress on the body and provide a boost in the terms of a “fight or flight” scenario.

  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine are depleted quickly during these moments of stress due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
  • The addition of this amino acid to Ghost of War will help give you an extra PUSH and can make a big difference to help you FIGHT through your workouts and plateaus.
  • Hoffman et al. (2010) research results indicate that acute ingestion of supplement including L-tyrosine and anhydrous caffeine can maintain reaction time and subjective feelings of focus and alertness to both visual and auditory stimuli in healthy college students following exhaustive exercise.

Di-Caffeine Matrix (Caffeine Anhydrous, Infinergy™)

This blend of caffeine helps to provide effectively dosed stimulation for your training and not keep you up all night long.

  • It is also formulated to help fight that horrible crash you might experience with stimulated laden pre workouts.
  • Multiple studies have confirmed can improve muscular endurance and power, focus and cognitive performance, and improve energy levels. Caffeine has also been shown to have a thermogenic effect (heating/calorie burning) at rest and may increase the use of fats for fuel during exercise.
  • Doherty and Smith performed a meta-analysis of caffeine's effects on perceived exertion and found a 5.6% decrease in RPE (rating of perceived exertion) during exercise.  This means exercise may feel easier at higher effort levels when supplementing with caffeine.

Choline

Choline is an essential nutrient for brain health and synaptic plasticity.

  • Choline improves structural integrity, signaling capacity and the fluidity of neural membranes. It’s estimated that close to 90% of the population does not get the recommended amount of choline daily.
  • It has been shown that a dose of 500mg of Choline can boost focus, mood and concentration abilities.
  • This is tantamount to pushing through your workout. Utilizing this effectively dosed compound, you will be able to focus on taking less rest or being distracted during your training. Giving your 110% will really be your 110%.
  • A study conducted by Sun et al. (1999) reported that subjects who supplemented with choline for 4 weeks improved learning performance and memory compared to a placebo group.

Theobromine

A component of cocoa, theobromine helps increase blood flow, cognition, and focus.

FAQ

Q: I was a BIG Rage fan. Will I like Ghost of War?

A: No… You will LOVE Ghost of War! It’s everything Rage was and MORE!

 

Q: What is the best way to take Rage Ghost of War?

A: Mix one scoop of Ghost of War into 10-20 ounces of water and consume 30 minutes prior to training.

 

Q: What other Muscle Militia products do you recommend stacking with Ghost of War?

A: To address your pre, intra, and post workout energy, muscle building, and recovery needs we suggest stacking Ghost of War with Rapid Refuel and TOR-ACTIV.

 

References

Citrulline Malate

  1. Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E., & Cozzone, P. J. (2002). Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British journal of sports medicine,36(4), 282-289.
  2. Hickner, R. C., Tanner, C. J., Evans, C. A., Clark, P. D., Haddock, A., Fortune, C., … & Mccammon, M. (2006). L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 660-666.
  3. Pérez-Guisado, J., & Jakeman, P. M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), 1215-1222.
  4. Sureda, A., Córdova, A., Ferrer, M. D., Pérez, G., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2010). L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 110(2), 341-351.

Taurine

  1. Zhang, M., Izumi, I., Kagamimori, S., Sokejima, S., Yamagami, T., Liu, Z., & Qi, B. (2004). Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino acids, 26(2), 203-207.
  2. BOUCHAMA, A., YUSUF, A., AL-SEDAIRY, S. U. L. T. A. N., & EL-YAZIGI, A. D. N. A. N. (1993). Alteration of taurine homeostasis in acute heatstroke.Critical care medicine, 21(4), 551-554.
  3. Gwacham, N., & Wagner, D. R. (2012). Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 22(2), 109-116.
  4. Warskulat, U., Brookmann, S., Felsner, I., Brenden, H., Grether‐Beck, S., & Häussinger, D. (2008). Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts. Experimental dermatology, 17(12), 1031-1036.

L-Ornithine HCl

  1. Sugino, T., Shirai, T., Kajimoto, Y., & Kajimoto, O. (2008). L-ornithine supplementation attenuates physical fatigue in healthy volunteers by modulating lipid and amino acid metabolism. Nutrition research, 28(11), 738-743.

Beta Vulgaris Root Extract

  1. Lansley, K. E., Winyard, P. G., Fulford, J., Vanhatalo, A., Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., ... & Jones, A. M. (2011). Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study.Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(3), 591-600.
  2. Cermak, N. M., Gibala, M. J., & Van Loon, L. J. (2012). Nitrate supplementation's improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and exercise Metabolism,22(1), 64.
  3. Bailey, S. J., Fulford, J., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P. G., Blackwell, J. R., DiMenna, F. J., ... & Jones, A. M. (2010). Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. Journal of applied physiology109(1), 135-148.
  4. Fulford, J., Winyard, P. G., Vanhatalo, A., Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., & Jones, A. M. (2013). Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on human skeletal muscle metabolism and force production during maximum voluntary contractions. Pflügers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology465(4), 517-528.
  5. Bailey, S. J., Winyard, P., Vanhatalo, A., Blackwell, J. R., DiMenna, F. J., Wilkerson, D. P., ... & Jones, A. M. (2009). Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. Journal of applied physiology107(4), 1144-1155.
  6. Vanhatalo, A., Fulford, J., Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., Winyard, P. G., & Jones, A. M. (2011). Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia. The Journal of physiology589(22), 5517-5528.
  7. Montenegro, C. F., Kwong, D. A., Minow, Z. A., Davis, B. A., Lozada, C. F., & Casazza, G. A. (2016). Betalain-rich concentrate supplementation improves exercise performance and recovery in competitive triathletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism42(2), 166-172.

S7™

  1. Gladwin, M. T., Crawford, J. H., & Patel, R. P. (2004). The biochemistry of nitric oxide, nitrite, and hemoglobin: role in blood flow regulation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine36(6), 707-717.
  2. futureceuticals.com/s7

3-Aminopropanoic Acid

  1. Van, R. Thienen, K. Proeyen Van, B. Eynde Vanden, Joke Puype, Thomas Lefere, and Peter Hespel. "Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling." Medicine and science in sports and exercise41, no. 4 (2009): 898-903.
  2. Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc42(6), 1162-1173.
  3. Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., ... & Stout, J. R. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition6(1), 5.
  4. Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Kendall, K. L., Stout, J. R., & Cramer, J. T. (2010). Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without β-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24(5), 1199-1207.
  5. Kern, B. D., & Robinson, T. L. (2011). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research25(7), 1804-1815.
  6. Sweeney, K. M., Wright, G. A., Brice, A. G., & Doberstein, S. T. (2010). The effect of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research24(1), 79-87.
  7. Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J. A., Harris, R. C., & Sunderland, C. D. (2011). Effect of β-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and science in sports and exercise43(10), 1972-1978.
  8. Chung, W., Shaw, G., Anderson, M. E., Pyne, D. B., Saunders, P. U., Bishop, D. J., & Burke, L. M. (2012). Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients4(10), 1441-1453.

Beta-POWER® Betaine

  1. Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., … & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise.European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
  2. Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., Mccarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
  3. Lee, E. C., Maresh, C. M., Kraemer, W. J., Yamamoto, L. M., Hatfield, D. L., Bailey, B. L., … & Craig, S. A. (2010). Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr,7(1), 27.
  4. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Gonzalez, A. M., Beller, N. A., & Craig, S. A. (2011). Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2235-2241.
  5. Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., … & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc. Sports Nutr, 10(1), 39.

GlycerSize™

  1. Bartos, J. (2013). A uniquely optimized, highly concentrated powdered form of glycerol delivering next-level hydration and next-gen product potential http://astromicnutrition.com/HydroMax_WhitePaper.pdf
  2. Riedesel, M. L., Allen, D. Y., Peake, G. T., & Al-Qattan, K. (1987). Hyperhydration with glycerol solutions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(6), 2262-2268.
  3. Lyons, T. P., Riedesel, M. L., Meuli, L. E., & Chick, T. W. (1990). Effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration prior to exercise in the heat on sweating and core temperature. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22(4), 477-483.
  4. Goulet, E. D., Robergs, R. A., Labrecque, S., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2006). Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular functions and endurance performance during prolonged cycling in a 25 C environment. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 31(2), 101-109.
  5. Montner, P., Stark, D. M., Riedesel, M. L., Murata, G., Robergs, R., Timms, M., & Chick, T. W. (1996). Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time. International journal of sports medicine, 17(1), 27-33.

Creatine MagnaPower®

  1. Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, Greenwood M, Campbell B, Spano M, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:6.
  2. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
  3. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998, 30:73-82.
  4. Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of athletic training, 44(2), 215-223.
  5. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., & Lewis, J. D. (2011). Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1831-1838.
  6. McConell, G. K., Shinewell, J., Stephens, T. J., Stathis, C. G., Canny, B. J., & Snow, R. J. (2005). Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2054.
  7. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(1529), 2147-2150.

L-Tyrosine

  1. Benedict, C. R., Anderson, G. H., & Sole, M. J. (1983). The influence of oral tyrosine and tryptophan feeding on plasma catecholamines in man. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 38(3), 429-435.
  2. Alonso, R., Gibson, C. J., Wurtman, R. J., Agharanya, J. C., & Prieto, L. (1982). Elevation of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites following tyrosine administration in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 17(7), 781-790.
  3. Agharanya, J. C., Alonso, R., & Wurtman, R. J. (1981). Changes in catecholamine excretion after short-term tyrosine ingestion in normally fed human subjects. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 34(1), 82-87.
  4. Acworth, I. N., During, M. J., & Wurtman, R. J. (1988). Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release. Brain research bulletin, 21(3), 473-477.
  5. Neri, D. F., Wiegmann, D., Stanny, R. R., Shappell, S. A., McCardie, A., & McKay, D. L. (1995). The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine.

Di-Caffeine Matrix (Caffeine Anhydrous, Infinergy™)

  1. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., ... & Wildman, R. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 7(1), 5.
  2. Spriet, L. L. (1995). Caffeine and performance. International journal of sport nutrition, 5, S84-S84.
  3. Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506-510.
  4. McLellan, T. M., Kamimori, G. H., Voss, D. M., Tate, C., & Smith, S. J. (2007). Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
  5. Lieberman, H. R., Tharion, W. J., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K. L., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during US Navy SEAL training. Psychopharmacology, 164(3), 250-261.
  6. Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P., & Fink, W. J. (1977). Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and science in sports, 10(3), 155-158.
  7. Kovacs, E. M., Stegen, J. H., & Brouns, F. (1998). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and Performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(2), 709-715.

Choline

  1. Moreno, H., de Brugada, I., & Hall, G. (2013). Chronic dietary choline supplementation modulates attentional change in adult rats. Behavioural brain research, 243, 278-285.
  2. Blusztajn, J. K., & Mellott, T. J. (2013). Neuroprotective actions of perinatal choline nutrition. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 51(3), 591-599.
  3. Krzysztof Blusztajn, J., & J Mellott, T. (2012). Choline nutrition programs brain development via DNA and histone methylation. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Central Nervous System Agents), 12(2), 82-94.
  4. Biasi, E. (2011). The effects of dietary choline. Neuroscience bulletin, 27(5), 330-342.

Theobromine

  1. Davison, K., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., & Howe, P. R. C. (2008). Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects. International journal of obesity32(8), 1289-1296.
  2. Taubert, D., Roesen, R., Lehmann, C., Jung, N., & Schömig, E. (2007). Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. Jama298(1), 49-60.
  3. Desideri, G., Kwik-Uribe, C., Grassi, D., Necozione, S., Ghiadoni, L., Mastroiacovo, D., ... & Marini, C. (2012). Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study. Hypertension60(3), 794-801.
  4. Brickman, A. M., Khan, U. A., Provenzano, F. A., Yeung, L. K., Suzuki, W., Schroeter, H., ... & Small, S. A. (2014). Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults. Nature neuroscience17(12), 1798.
WARNING

California’s Proposition 65 entitles California consumers to special warnings.

WARNING: Cancer and Reproductive Harm - www.P65warnings.ca.gov/